Anomalous activation of shallow B+ implants in Ge

B.R. Yates, B.L. Darby, N.G. Rudawski, K.S. Jones, Dirch Hjorth Petersen, Ole Hansen, Rong Lin, P.F. Nielsen, A. Kontos

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The electrical activation of B+ implantation at 2 keV to doses of 5.0×1013-5.0×1015 cm-2 in crystalline and pre-amorphized Ge following annealing at 400 °C for 1.0 h was studied using micro Hall effect measurements. Preamorphization improved activation for all samples with the samples implanted to a dose of 5.0×1015 cm-2 displaying an estimated maximum active B concentration of 4.0×1020 cm-3 as compared to 2.0×1020 cm-3 for the crystalline sample. However, incomplete activation was observed for all samples across the investigated dose range. For the sample implanted to a dose of 5.0×1013 cm -2, activation values were 7% and 30%, for c-Ge and PA-Ge, respectively. The results suggest the presence of an anomalous clustering phenomenon of shallow B+ implants in Ge. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
JournalMaterials Letters
Issue number23-24
Pages (from-to)3540-3543
Publication statusPublished - 2011


  • Ge
  • TEM
  • B
  • Dopant activation
  • Micro four point probe

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