Anderson localization, the unusual phenomenon discovered in a disordered medium, describes the phase transition from the extended to localized state. Owing to the interference in multiple elastic scattering, this concept is firstly demonstrated in an electron system, then to photon and matter waves. However, Anderson localization has not been observed for polaritonic waves with its unique features of strong field confinement and tunability. Here, Anderson localization of plasmon polaritons is experimentally reported in a flat graphene sheet simultaneously with homogenous charge carrier and random tensile-strain distributions. By selectively choosing different disordered levels, the transition from quasi-expansion to weak localization, and finally Anderson localization are observed. Relying on the infrared nanoimaging technique, the spatial dependence of the localization is further studied, and finally the transition window from weak to Anderson localization of graphene plasmon polaritons is identified with the aid of the scaling theory. The experimental approach paves a new way to study Anderson localization in other polaritonic systems such as phonon, exciton, magnon polaritons, etc.
- Graphene plasmons
- Strong localization