Analysis of diverse direct arylation polymerization (DArP) conditions toward the efficient synthesis of polymers converging with stille polymers in organic solar cells

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article – Annual report year: 2016Researchpeer-review


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Despite the emergence of direct arylation polymerization (DArP) as an alternative method to traditional cross-coupling routes like Stille polymerization, the exploration of DArP polymers in practical applications like polymer solar cells (PSCs) is limited. DArP polymers tend to have a reputation for being marginally inferior to Stille counterparts due to the increased presence of defects that result from unwanted side reactions in direct arylation, such as unselective C-H bond activation and homocoupling. We report ten DArP protocols across the three major classes of DArP to generate poly[(2,5-bis(2-hexyldecyloxy)phenylene)-alt-(4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole)] (PPDTBT). Through evaluation of the method and resulting photophysical and electronic properties, we show not all DArP methods are suitable for generating device-quality alternating copolymers. When DArP PPDTBT was synthesized in superheated THF with Cs2CO3, neodecanoic acid, and P(o-anisyl)3, it generated polymers of exceptional quality that performed comparably to Stille counterparts in both roll coated ITO-free and spin-coated ITO devices.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry
Issue number18
Pages (from-to)2907-2918
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2016
CitationsWeb of Science® Times Cited: No match on DOI

    Research areas

  • Conjugated polymers, Copolymerization, Polyaromatics, Direct arylation polymerisation, Solar cells
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ID: 125029153