An integrated yeast-based process for cis,cis-muconic acid production

Guokun Wang, Aline Tavares, Simone Schmitz, Lucas França, Hugo Almeida, João Cavalheiro, Ana Carolas, Süleyman Øzmerih, Lars M Blank, Bruno S Ferreira*, Irina Borodina*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Cis,cis-muconic acid (CCM) is a promising polymer building block. CCM can be made by whole-cell bioconversion of lignin hydrolysates or de novo biosynthesis from sugar feedstocks using engineered microorganisms. At present, however, there is no established process for large-scale CCM production. In this study, we developed an integrated process for manufacturing CCM from glucose by yeast fermentation. We systematically engineered the CCM-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain by rewiring the shikimate pathway flux and enhancing phosphoenolpyruvate supply. The engineered strain ST10209 accumulated less biomass but produced 1.4 g/L CCM (70 mg CCM per g glucose) in microplate assay, 71% more than the previously engineered strain ST8943. The strain ST10209 produced 22.5 g/L CCM in a 2 L fermenter with a productivity of 0.19 g/L/h, compared to 0.14 g/L/h achieved by ST8943 in our previous report under the same fermentation conditions. The fermentation process was demonstrated at pilot scale in 10 L and 50 L steel tanks. In 10 L fermenter, ST10209 produced 20.8 g/L CCM with a CCM yield of 0.1 g/g glucose and a productivity of 0.21 g/L/h, representing the highest to-date CCM yield and productivity. We developed a CCM recovery and purification process by treating the fermentation broth with activated carbon at low pH and low temperature, achieving an overall CCM recovery yield of 66.3% and 95.4% purity. In summary, we report an integrated CCM production process employing engineered S. cerevisiae yeast. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
JournalBiotechnology and Bioengineering
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)376-387
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Fermentation
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  • metabolic engineering
  • purification
  • recovery


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