An Integrated Framework for Geothermal Energy Storage with CO2 Sequestration and Utilization

Yueliang Liu, Ting Hu, Zhenhua Rui*, Zheng Zhang, Kai Du, Tao Yang, Birol Dindoruk, Erling Halfdan Stenby, Farshid Torabi, Andrey Afanasyev

*Corresponding author for this work

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Subsurface geothermal energy storage has greater potential than other energy storage strategies in terms of capacity scale and time duration. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is regarded as a potential medium for energy storage due to its superior thermal properties. Moreover, the use of CO2 plumes for geothermal energy storage mitigates the greenhouse effect by storing CO2 in geological bodies. In this work, an integrated framework is proposed for synergistic geothermal energy storage and CO2 sequestration and utilization. Within this framework, CO2 is first injected into geothermal layers for energy accumulation. The resultant high-energy CO2 is then introduced into a target oil reservoir for CO2 utilization and geothermal energy storage. As a result, CO2 is sequestrated in the geological oil reservoir body. The results show that, as high-energy CO2 is injected, the average temperature of the whole target reservoir is greatly increased. With the assistance of geothermal energy, the geological utilization efficiency of CO2 is higher, resulting in a 10.1% increase in oil displacement efficiency. According to a storage-potential assessment of the simulated CO2 site, 110 years after the CO2 injection, the utilization efficiency of the geological body will be as high as 91.2%, and the final injection quantity of the CO2 in the site will be as high as 9.529 × 108 tonnes. After 1000 years sequestration, the supercritical phase dominates in CO2 sequestration, followed by the liquid phase and then the mineralized phase. In addition, CO2 sequestration accounting for dissolution trapping increases significantly due to the presence of residual oil. More importantly, CO2 exhibits excellent performance in storing geothermal energy on a large scale; for example, the total energy stored in the studied geological body can provide the yearly energy supply for over 3.5 × 107 normal households. Application of this integrated approach holds great significance for large-scale geothermal energy storage and the achievement of carbon neutrality by 2050.

Original languageEnglish
Journal Engineering
Pages (from-to)121-130
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • Carbon neutrality
  • CO sequestration
  • CO utilization
  • Geothermal energy storage
  • Large-scale


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