An enzymatic nucleic acid vertical flow assay

Mehdi Tahmasebi, Taravat Bamdad, Winnie Edith Svendsen, Mehdi Forouzandeh-Moghadam*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Vertical flow assays have been developed in recent years addressing limitations of the lateral flow assays, including limited multiplexing capability, quantitation, and hook effect. In the present study, the first passive paper-based vertical flow assay is developed for the detection of the nucleic acid target. Horseradish peroxidase was used as an enzymatic tracer with a high potential for signal amplification. In order to achieve the best signal-to-noise ratio, different parameters of paper-based assays were optimized. The sample is heat denatured and hybridized with a specific probe to form a dual-labeled hybridization complex. A small volume of diluted sample, 12 µl, can be analyzed within 6 min on the assay in a sandwich format. Assay specificity was evaluated by testing different unrelated samples, and also, 1.7 nM was obtained as the limit of detection (LOD) using the 0 + 3SD method, which is equivalent to 8.5 fmol of double-stranded DNA in the 12 µl sample volume. The linear range of 3–194 nM with a 0.978 correlation coefficient was obtained according to the calibration curve. The developed assay was evaluated with 45 hepatitis B virus clinical plasma samples, and the result showed 100% consistency of the assay with the real-time PCR benchmark. In the present study, we sought to develop a mere detection system for nucleic acid targets, and to investigate the possibility of using enzyme reporter in a passive vertical flow assay. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]
Original languageEnglish
JournalAnalytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Pages (from-to)3605-3615
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Vertical flow assay
  • Chemiluminescence
  • Horseradish peroxidase
  • Lateral flow assay
  • In vitro diagnostic
  • Hepatitis B virus


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