An anaerobic field injection experiment in a landfill leachate plume, Grindsted, Denmark: 1. Experimental setup, tracer movement, and fate of aromatic and chlorinated compounds

K. Rügge, P.L. Bjerg, J.K. Pedersen, H. Mosbæk, T.H. Christensen

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    A continuous, natural-gradient field injection experiment, involving 18 xenobiotic compounds and bromide as tracers, was performed in the anaerobic region of a leachate plume downgradient from the Grindsted Landfill, Denmark. The injection lasted for 195 days, and within this period a continuous cloud was established. Over a period of 924 days the cloud movement was monitored in approximately 70 discrete sampling points in the central part of the cloud, and the spatial distribution was described by seven cloud snapshots involving 400-700 sampling points. The bromide cloud movement closely followed the varying flow direction predicted by the water table measurements. Moment analysis showed decreasing tracer flow velocities and reduced capture of bromide mass with time, which may be explained by varying flow conditions (direction, hydraulic gradient) and the heterogeneous geological conditions in the sandy aquifer. Naphthalene, having the highest log K-ow value, was the most retarded compound, with a retardation of less than 10%. Therefore sorption was not considered to be a significant attenuation process for any of the compounds studied. Transformation under iron-reducing conditions was observed for toluene, o-xylene, TeCM, 1,1,1-TCA, PCE, and TCE, while transformation of benzene and napthalene was not detected in the aquifer within the time frame of this study. First-order transformation rates were in the range of 0.028-0.039 d(-1) and 0.0014-0.0028 d(-1) for the aromatic compounds toluene and o-xylene, respectively. The rates for the chlorinated aliphatic compounds, tetrachloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene, were >0.7 d(-1), 0.0044-0.0054 d(-1), 0.0012-0.0038 d(-1), and 0.0003-0.001 d(-1), respectively. Long lag periods and slow transformation rates were observed for some of the compounds, suggesting that lack of transformation reported in the literature may be attributable to short experimental periods in those studies.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalWater Resources Research
    Volume35
    Issue number4
    Pages (from-to)1231 - 1246
    ISSN0043-1397
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1999

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