All solution processing of ITO-free organic solar cell modules directly on barrier foil

Dechan Angmo, Markus Hösel, Frederik C Krebs

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In this study, we demonstrate fully solution processed semi-transparent silver electrodes on flexible substrates having a sheet resistance as low as 5Ω/□ and transmittance of ∼30% at 550nm. We demonstrate the use of this electrode as a substitute for ITO in an inverted organic solar cell (OSC) with the layer sequence, PET/Ag/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag where illumination is achieved through the first Ag layer. Power conversion efficiency of up to 1.6% under 1 sun illumination (100mWcm−2 and AM1.5G) is achieved for small area (1cm2) test devices. We further demonstrate scalability of the semi-transparent Ag electrode fabrication in a roll-to-roll (R2R) process using slot-die coating. This electrode is further utilized in R2R processing of large area modules (active area 35.5cm2) where all layers in the modules are R2R processed with solution-based materials in ambient conditions without any use of vacuum steps. We further demonstrate the possibility of using barrier foil as the substrate in the R2R processing of modules. Module performance is evaluated by current–voltage characterization and Light Beam Induced Current (LBIC imaging). Such a semi-transparent Ag electrode incurs very little material and processing cost and is a cost-effective alternative to ITO for low-cost organic solar cells.
Original languageEnglish
JournalSolar Energy Materials & Solar Cells
Pages (from-to)329-336
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • ITO-free
  • Organic solarcells
  • Roll-to-roll processing
  • Ag
  • Silver
  • Electrode


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