In this paper the aldol condensation of furfural (C5) with acetone (C3) over Ca/ZSM-5 was studied with lower dosages of water and acetone as compared to previous studies. It was observed that the formation of CaO over the catalyst is critical to catalyst activity and that the reaction may not occur without water. Although higher quantity of water was favorable for the formation of 4-(2-Furyl)-3-buten-2-one (C8), it was inhibitive for the formation of 1,5-bis-(2-furanyl)-1,4-pentadien-3-one (C13). Highest yields of C8 (38.4 mol%) and C13 (60.2 mol%) were obtained with C3-to-C5 mole ratio of 0.8:1, and water content of 29.7 wt%. The deactivated catalyst was further regenerated by re-loading CaO. An intrinsic kinetic model was established whereby the reaction was first-order dependent on the concentration of each reactant. The formation of 4-(2-furyl)-4‑hydroxy‑butan-2-one (C8-OH), and the C8-OH-to-C8 dehydration were essential steps. The reaction of C8-OH with C5 owned the highest activation energy (41.9 kJ/mol), this step was more sensitive to reaction temperature than those of other steps.
|Journal||Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers|
|Publication status||Published - 2020|
- Aldol condensation