Airborne transmission between room occupants during short-term events: Measurement and evaluation

Zhengtao Ai*, Kaho Hashimoto, Arsen Krikor Melikov

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

This study experimentally examines and compares the dynamics and short-term events of airborne cross-infection in a full-scale room ventilated by stratum, mixing and displacement air distributions. Two breathing thermal manikins were employed to simulate a standing infected person and a standing exposed person. Four influential factors were examined, including separation distance between manikins, air change per hour, positioning of the two manikinsand air distribution. Tracer gas technique was used to simulate the exhaled droplet nuclei from the infected person and fast tracer gas concentration meters (FCM41) were used to monitor the concentrations. Real-time and average exposure indices were proposed to evaluate the dynamics of airborne exposure. The time-averaged exposure index depends on the duration of exposure time and can be considerably different during short-term events and under steady-state conditions. The exposure risk during short-term events may not always decrease with increasing separation distance. It changes over time and may not always increase with time. These findings imply that the control measures formulated on the basis of steady-state conditions are not necessarily appropriate for short-term events.
Original languageEnglish
JournalIndoor Air
Volume29
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)563-576
Number of pages14
ISSN0905-6947
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • Airborne transmission
  • Building ventilation
  • Concentration measurement
  • Dynamics
  • Indoor air quality
  • Short-term events

Cite this

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title = "Airborne transmission between room occupants during short-term events: Measurement and evaluation",
abstract = "This study experimentally examines and compares the dynamics and short-term events of airborne cross-infection in a full-scale room ventilated by stratum, mixing and displacement air distributions. Two breathing thermal manikins were employed to simulate a standing infected person and a standing exposed person. Four influential factors were examined, including separation distance between manikins, air change per hour, positioning of the two manikinsand air distribution. Tracer gas technique was used to simulate the exhaled droplet nuclei from the infected person and fast tracer gas concentration meters (FCM41) were used to monitor the concentrations. Real-time and average exposure indices were proposed to evaluate the dynamics of airborne exposure. The time-averaged exposure index depends on the duration of exposure time and can be considerably different during short-term events and under steady-state conditions. The exposure risk during short-term events may not always decrease with increasing separation distance. It changes over time and may not always increase with time. These findings imply that the control measures formulated on the basis of steady-state conditions are not necessarily appropriate for short-term events.",
keywords = "Airborne transmission, Building ventilation, Concentration measurement, Dynamics, Indoor air quality, Short-term events",
author = "Zhengtao Ai and Kaho Hashimoto and Melikov, {Arsen Krikor}",
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journal = "Indoor Air",
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Airborne transmission between room occupants during short-term events: Measurement and evaluation. / Ai, Zhengtao; Hashimoto, Kaho; Melikov, Arsen Krikor.

In: Indoor Air, Vol. 29, No. 4, 2019, p. 563-576.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Airborne transmission between room occupants during short-term events: Measurement and evaluation

AU - Ai, Zhengtao

AU - Hashimoto, Kaho

AU - Melikov, Arsen Krikor

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - This study experimentally examines and compares the dynamics and short-term events of airborne cross-infection in a full-scale room ventilated by stratum, mixing and displacement air distributions. Two breathing thermal manikins were employed to simulate a standing infected person and a standing exposed person. Four influential factors were examined, including separation distance between manikins, air change per hour, positioning of the two manikinsand air distribution. Tracer gas technique was used to simulate the exhaled droplet nuclei from the infected person and fast tracer gas concentration meters (FCM41) were used to monitor the concentrations. Real-time and average exposure indices were proposed to evaluate the dynamics of airborne exposure. The time-averaged exposure index depends on the duration of exposure time and can be considerably different during short-term events and under steady-state conditions. The exposure risk during short-term events may not always decrease with increasing separation distance. It changes over time and may not always increase with time. These findings imply that the control measures formulated on the basis of steady-state conditions are not necessarily appropriate for short-term events.

AB - This study experimentally examines and compares the dynamics and short-term events of airborne cross-infection in a full-scale room ventilated by stratum, mixing and displacement air distributions. Two breathing thermal manikins were employed to simulate a standing infected person and a standing exposed person. Four influential factors were examined, including separation distance between manikins, air change per hour, positioning of the two manikinsand air distribution. Tracer gas technique was used to simulate the exhaled droplet nuclei from the infected person and fast tracer gas concentration meters (FCM41) were used to monitor the concentrations. Real-time and average exposure indices were proposed to evaluate the dynamics of airborne exposure. The time-averaged exposure index depends on the duration of exposure time and can be considerably different during short-term events and under steady-state conditions. The exposure risk during short-term events may not always decrease with increasing separation distance. It changes over time and may not always increase with time. These findings imply that the control measures formulated on the basis of steady-state conditions are not necessarily appropriate for short-term events.

KW - Airborne transmission

KW - Building ventilation

KW - Concentration measurement

KW - Dynamics

KW - Indoor air quality

KW - Short-term events

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JO - Indoor Air

JF - Indoor Air

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