AIE-featured tetraphenylethylene nanoarchitectures in biomedical application: Bioimaging, drug delivery and disease treatment

Kothanahally S. Sharath Kumar*, Yarabahally R. Girish, Milad Ashrafizadeh, Sepideh Mirzaei, Kadalipura P. Rakesh, Mohammad Hossein Gholami, Amirhossein Zabolian, Kiavash Hushmandi, Gorka Orive, Firoz Babu Kadumudi, Alireza Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Vijay Kumar Thakur, Ali Zarrabi, Pooyan Makvandi, Kanchugarakoppal S. Rangappa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReviewpeer-review

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The development of aggregation-induced emission (AIE) has received extreme considerations from basic and clinical researches. To date, various luminogens with AIE property (AIEgens) have been broadly utilized in optoelectronic devices, fluorescent bio-probes, drug delivery, anticancer and chemosensors and many more. Scientists have likewise dedicated to investigating the possibilities of AIEgens in the biomedical field. Among the various AIE luminophores studied, tetraphenylethylene (TPE) derivatives have demonstrated as most promising AIEgen, owing to their capacity in self-organization and conjugation with aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) fluorophores to form larger multi-component assemblies. It likewise generally utilized in different fields, like organic and therapeutic science, supramolecular chemistry, organic electronics, cancer therapy, apoptosis and inflammation, microorganism imaging therapy etc. This review encompasses the recent advances of TPE based AIE-active luminophores and their potential applications in biomolecular science.

Original languageEnglish
Article number214135
JournalCoordination Chemistry Reviews
Number of pages48
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
K.S. Rangappa acknowledge CSIR for providing an emeritus scientist fellowship. GO wish to thank the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry, and Competitiveness (SAF2016-76150-R and BFU2017-82421-P) and technical assistance from the ICTS NANBIOSIS (Drug Formulation Unit, U10) at the University of the Basque Country.


  • AIE
  • Biomedical applications
  • Luminogens
  • Tetraphenylethylene


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