Osteoglossiformes is a basal clade of teleost, evolving since the Jurassic period. The genomes of Osteoglossiformes species would shed light on the evolution and adaptation of teleost. Here, we established a chromosome-level genome of African arowana. Together with the genomes of pirarucu and Asian arowana, we found that they diverged at ∼106.1 million years ago (MYA) and ∼59.2 MYA, respectively, which are coincident with continental separation. Interestingly, we identified a dynamic genome evolution characterized by a fast evolutionary rate and a high pseudogenization rate in African arowana and pirarucu. Additionally, more transposable elements were found in Asian arowana which confer more gene duplications. Moreover, we found the contraction of olfactory receptor and the expansion of UGT in African arowana might be related to its transformation from carnivore to be omnivore. Taken together, we provided valuable genomic resource of Osteoglossidae and revealed the correlation of biogeography and teleost evolution.