Advancing Tin Halide Perovskites: Strategies Toward ASnX3 Paradigm for Efficient and Durable Optoelectronics

Yajie Yan, Tõnu Pullerits, Kaibo Zheng*, Ziqi Liang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReviewpeer-review

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Despite great successes in metal halide perovskites, most of them were achieved in lead-based perovskites (Pb-PVSKs), in which the Pb-toxicity inhibits practical deployments. Various less-toxic substitutes were proposed wherein tin-based PVSKs (Sn-PVSKs) hold the best prospect due to their comparable optoelectronic properties to Pb analogues. Nevertheless, the oxidation proneness of Sn2+ incurs both instability issue and self-doping effect, the latter of which results in high background hole carrier density and hence severe photo-voltage losses. Besides, the unfavorable crystallization process of Sn-PVSKs challenges large-scale manufacturing. Therefore, numerous attempts have been directed at the preparation of highly uniform and oxidation-resistant Sn-PVSK thin films while unveiling the relationships between the optimization strategy and device performance/durability. In this review article, a retrospect is firstly given on the milestones and general properties of paradigm ABX3 structured Sn-PVSKs. Then, various strategies in the categories of synthetic conditions (i.e., additive, solvent and the preparation methods), elemental compositions, device architecture as well as phase composition/distribution will be discussed for diverse optoelectronic applications. Subsequently, the determining mechanisms of electronic structure evolution, photo-physics process and degradation pathways will be thoroughly interpreted. Finally, the conclusions and outlook are given for the guidance of future improvements that depends critically on the strategies.
Original languageEnglish
JournalACS Energy Letters
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)2052–2086
Publication statusPublished - 2020


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