Advancements on Grid Compliance in Wind Power: Component & Subsystem Testing, Software-/Hardware-in-the-loop, and Digital Twins

Gabriel Miguel Gomes Guerreiro*, Frank Martin, Thomas Dreyer, Guangya Yang, Björn Andresen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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The rapid expansion of wind power needs increased efforts in establishing rules for connecting wind power plants (WPPs) through grid codes and standards. This makes grid compliance testing and model validation more complex for wind turbine generator (WTG) manufacturers and WPP developers. This paper explores various challenges and solutions within the wind industry concerning grid compliance and the integration of large-scale WPPs. Traditionally, WTG original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) conduct grid compliance tests on full-scale prototype turbines, while WPP developers predominantly engage in studies for new WPPs based on offline EMT and RMS simulations. Up to this point, these approaches have sufficed to ensure grid compliance for WTGs and WPPs. However, as the wind sector progresses, new testing methods are required to meet the growing WT capacity, WPP complexity, and deployment pace, aiming to achieve society’s sustainability targets. The industry is actively exploring methodologies that address these challenges by testing new turbine subsystems and components at the development level, employing software-/hardware-in-the-loop real-time simulation for WTG/WPP interoperability assessment, and ensuring control and protection performance verification during design and operation. Additionally, digital twin approaches are being considered, encompassing the entire development and operation chain for grid compliance and connection aspects. Ultimately, this paper presents a fresh overview of these strategies, outlining definitions and the pros/cons for the stakeholders involved in the process.
Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Access
Number of pages18
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • Wind power
  • Grid compliance
  • Component & subsystem testing
  • SiL/HiL
  • Digital twins


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