This study develops an add-on local sweating simulation system to upgrade existing dry thermal manikins to local and sweating thermal manikins. The performance of this system was studied using a dry thermal manikin resembling a human lying on a bed with a ventilated mattress. The system comprises water-repellent porous hollow tubes to discharge water onto a diffusive fabric, as well as a motorized gear pump, DC power supply, relay module, microcomputer, and water container. Using the developed system, we maintained a cyclic steady-state for sweat generation; further, as simulated sweat, the tubes discharge distilled water over a wide area on the surface of a manikin segment covered with fabric. The local evaporative heat loss determined using the manikin roughly agreed with that calculated using the latent heat and water discharge rate, with a difference within 5 W/m2. The humidity in the bed microenvironment was increased via the add-on sweat generation system and decreased via mattress ventilation. A dry thermal manikin with an add-on system is suitable for evaluating local cooling induced by sweating. The system has high repeatability (6% standard deviation); however, the accuracy of the water discharge rate (30%) needs improvement.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported in part by the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), 2018-2021 (18H01594). Experiments were conducted in the facilities at the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy (ICIEE) of the Technical University of Denmark. We express our gratitude to Dr. Mariya Bivolarova and Miss Tereza Sn??elov? for their support during the preparation of the experimental setup. We thank Daiwabo Neu Co. Ltd. for supplying the fabric samples.
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