Adaptive multi-rate interface: development and experimental verification for real-time hybrid simulation

Amin Maghareh, Jacob Paamand Waldbjørn, Shirley J. Dyke, Arun Prakash, Ali I. Ozdagli

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) is a powerful cyber-physical technique that is a relatively cost-effective method to perform global/local system evaluation of structural systems. A major factor that determines the ability of an RTHS to represent true system-level behavior is the fidelity of the numerical substructure. While the use of higher-order models increases fidelity of the simulation, it also increases the demand for computational resources. Because RTHS is executed at real-time, in a conventional RTHS configuration, this increase in computational resources may limit the achievable sampling frequencies and/or introduce delays that can degrade its stability and performance. In this study, the Adaptive Multi-rate Interface rate-transitioning and compensation technique is developed to enable the use of more complex numerical models. Such a multi-rate RTHS is strictly executed at real-time, although it employs different time steps in the numerical and the physical substructures while including rate-transitioning to link the components appropriately. Typically, a higher-order numerical substructure model is solved at larger time intervals, and is coupled with a physical substructure that is driven at smaller time intervals for actuator control purposes. Through a series of simulations, the performance of the AMRI and several existing approaches for multi-rate RTHS is compared. It is noted that compared with existing methods, AMRI leads to a smaller error, especially at higher ratios of sampling frequency between the numerical and physical substructures and for input signals with high-frequency content. Further, it does not induce signal chattering at the coupling frequency. The effectiveness of AMRI is also verified experimentally.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEarthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics
Issue number9
Pages (from-to)1411-1425
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Adaptive multi-rate interface
  • AMRI
  • MrRTHS
  • Multi-rate RTHS
  • Real-time hybrid simulation
  • RTHS

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