Adaptive model predictive control for a dual-hormone artificial pancreas

Dimitri Boiroux, Vladimír Bátora, Morten Hagdrup, Sabrina Lyngbye Wendt, Niels Kjølstad Poulsen, Henrik Madsen, John Bagterp Jørgensen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

We report the closed-loop performance of adaptive model predictive control (MPC) algorithms for a dual-hormone artificial pancreas (AP) intended for patients with type 1 diabetes. The dual-hormone AP measures the interstitial glucose concentration using a subcutaneous continuous glucose monitor (CGM) and administers glucagon and rapid-acting insulin subcutaneously. The discrete-time transfer function models used in the insulin and glucagon MPCs comprise a deterministic part and a stochastic part. The deterministic part of the MPC model is individualized using patient-specific information and describes the glucose-insulin and glucose-glucagon dynamics. The stochastic part of the MPC model describes the uncertainties that are not included in the deterministic part of the MPC model. Using closed-loop simulation of the MPCs, we evaluate the performance obtained using the different deterministic and stochastic models for the MPC on three virtual patients. We simulate a scenario including meals and daily variations in the model parameters for two settings. In the first setting, we try five different models for the deterministic part of the MPC model and use a fixed model for the stochastic part of the MPC model. In the second setting, we use a second-order model for the deterministic part of the MPC model and estimate the stochastic part of the MPC model adaptively. The results show that the controller is robust to daily variations in the model parameters. The numerical results also suggest that the deterministic part of the MPC model does not play a major role in the closed-loop performance of MPC. This is ascribed to the availability of feedback and the poor prediction capability of the model, i.e. the large disturbances and model-patient mismatch. Moreover, a second order adaptive model for the stochastic part of the MPC model offers a marginally better performance in closed-loop, in particular if the model-patient mismatch is large.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Process Control
Volume68
Pages (from-to)105-117
Number of pages13
ISSN0959-1524
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Keywords

  • Adaptive control
  • Artificial pancreas
  • Insulin and glucagon
  • Model predictive control
  • Type 1 diabetes

Cite this

Boiroux, Dimitri ; Bátora, Vladimír ; Hagdrup, Morten ; Wendt, Sabrina Lyngbye ; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad ; Madsen, Henrik ; Jørgensen, John Bagterp. / Adaptive model predictive control for a dual-hormone artificial pancreas. In: Journal of Process Control. 2018 ; Vol. 68. pp. 105-117.
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abstract = "We report the closed-loop performance of adaptive model predictive control (MPC) algorithms for a dual-hormone artificial pancreas (AP) intended for patients with type 1 diabetes. The dual-hormone AP measures the interstitial glucose concentration using a subcutaneous continuous glucose monitor (CGM) and administers glucagon and rapid-acting insulin subcutaneously. The discrete-time transfer function models used in the insulin and glucagon MPCs comprise a deterministic part and a stochastic part. The deterministic part of the MPC model is individualized using patient-specific information and describes the glucose-insulin and glucose-glucagon dynamics. The stochastic part of the MPC model describes the uncertainties that are not included in the deterministic part of the MPC model. Using closed-loop simulation of the MPCs, we evaluate the performance obtained using the different deterministic and stochastic models for the MPC on three virtual patients. We simulate a scenario including meals and daily variations in the model parameters for two settings. In the first setting, we try five different models for the deterministic part of the MPC model and use a fixed model for the stochastic part of the MPC model. In the second setting, we use a second-order model for the deterministic part of the MPC model and estimate the stochastic part of the MPC model adaptively. The results show that the controller is robust to daily variations in the model parameters. The numerical results also suggest that the deterministic part of the MPC model does not play a major role in the closed-loop performance of MPC. This is ascribed to the availability of feedback and the poor prediction capability of the model, i.e. the large disturbances and model-patient mismatch. Moreover, a second order adaptive model for the stochastic part of the MPC model offers a marginally better performance in closed-loop, in particular if the model-patient mismatch is large.",
keywords = "Adaptive control, Artificial pancreas, Insulin and glucagon, Model predictive control, Type 1 diabetes",
author = "Dimitri Boiroux and Vladim{\'i}r B{\'a}tora and Morten Hagdrup and Wendt, {Sabrina Lyngbye} and Poulsen, {Niels Kj{\o}lstad} and Henrik Madsen and J{\o}rgensen, {John Bagterp}",
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Adaptive model predictive control for a dual-hormone artificial pancreas. / Boiroux, Dimitri; Bátora, Vladimír; Hagdrup, Morten; Wendt, Sabrina Lyngbye; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Madsen, Henrik; Jørgensen, John Bagterp.

In: Journal of Process Control, Vol. 68, 2018, p. 105-117.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

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AU - Boiroux, Dimitri

AU - Bátora, Vladimír

AU - Hagdrup, Morten

AU - Wendt, Sabrina Lyngbye

AU - Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

AU - Madsen, Henrik

AU - Jørgensen, John Bagterp

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AB - We report the closed-loop performance of adaptive model predictive control (MPC) algorithms for a dual-hormone artificial pancreas (AP) intended for patients with type 1 diabetes. The dual-hormone AP measures the interstitial glucose concentration using a subcutaneous continuous glucose monitor (CGM) and administers glucagon and rapid-acting insulin subcutaneously. The discrete-time transfer function models used in the insulin and glucagon MPCs comprise a deterministic part and a stochastic part. The deterministic part of the MPC model is individualized using patient-specific information and describes the glucose-insulin and glucose-glucagon dynamics. The stochastic part of the MPC model describes the uncertainties that are not included in the deterministic part of the MPC model. Using closed-loop simulation of the MPCs, we evaluate the performance obtained using the different deterministic and stochastic models for the MPC on three virtual patients. We simulate a scenario including meals and daily variations in the model parameters for two settings. In the first setting, we try five different models for the deterministic part of the MPC model and use a fixed model for the stochastic part of the MPC model. In the second setting, we use a second-order model for the deterministic part of the MPC model and estimate the stochastic part of the MPC model adaptively. The results show that the controller is robust to daily variations in the model parameters. The numerical results also suggest that the deterministic part of the MPC model does not play a major role in the closed-loop performance of MPC. This is ascribed to the availability of feedback and the poor prediction capability of the model, i.e. the large disturbances and model-patient mismatch. Moreover, a second order adaptive model for the stochastic part of the MPC model offers a marginally better performance in closed-loop, in particular if the model-patient mismatch is large.

KW - Adaptive control

KW - Artificial pancreas

KW - Insulin and glucagon

KW - Model predictive control

KW - Type 1 diabetes

U2 - 10.1016/j.jprocont.2018.05.003

DO - 10.1016/j.jprocont.2018.05.003

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