Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality of cystic fibrosis patients. During the infection, the bacteria colonize the nutritional rich lung mucus, which is present in the airway secretions in the patients, and they adapt their phenotype accordingly to the lung environment. In the airways, P. aeruginosa undergoes a broad metabolic rewiring as a consequence of the nutritional and stressful complexity of the lungs. However, the role of such metabolic rewiring on the infection outcome is poorly understood. Here, we review the metabolic evolution of clinical strains of P. aeruginosa during a cystic fibrosis lung infection and the metabolic functions operating in vivo under patho-physiological conditions. Finally, we discuss the perspective of modeling the cystic fibrosis environment using genome scale metabolic models of P. aeruginosa. Understanding the physiological changes occurring during the infection may pave the way to a more effective treatment for P. aeruginosa lung infections.