Accurate Angle Estimator for High-Frame-rate 2-D Vector Flow Imaging

Carlos Armando Villagómez Hoyos, Matthias Bo Stuart, Kristoffer Lindskov Hansen, Michael Bachmann Nielsen, Jørgen Arendt Jensen

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This paper presents a novel approach for estimating 2-D flow angles using a high-frame-rate ultrasound method. The angle estimator features high accuracy and low standard deviation (SD) over the full 360° range. The method is validated
on Field II simulations and phantom measurements using the experimental ultrasound scanner SARUS and a flow rig before being tested in vivo. An 8-MHz linear array transducer is used with defocused beam emissions. In the simulations of a spinning disk phantom, a 360° uniform behavior on the angle estimation is observed with a median angle bias of 1.01° and a median angle SD of 1.8°. Similar results are obtained on a straight vessel for both simulations and measurements, where the obtained angle biases are below 1.5° with SDs around 1°. Estimated velocity magnitudes are also kept under 10% bias and 5% relative SD in both simulations and measurements. An in vivo measurement is performed on a carotid bifurcation of a healthy individual. A 3-s acquisition during three heart cycles is captured. A consistent and repetitive vortex is observed in the carotid bulb during systoles.
Original languageEnglish
JournalI E E E Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)842-853
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Angle estimator
  • Blood flow
  • Medical ultrasound
  • Synthetic aperture
  • Vector Flow Imaging

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