Accuracy and Precision of a Plane Wave Vector Flow Imaging Method in the Healthy Carotid Artery

Jonas Jensen*, Carlos Armando Villagómez Hoyos, Marie Sand Traberg, Jacob Bjerring Olesen, Borislav Gueorguiev Tomov, Ramin Moshavegh, Simon Holbek, Matthias Bo Stuart, Caroline Ewertsen, Kristoffer Lindskov Hansen, Carsten E. Thomsen, Michael Bachmann Nielsen, Jørgen Arendt Jensen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

The objective of the study described here was to investigate the accuracy and precision of a plane wave 2-D vector flow imaging (VFI) method in laminar and complex blood flow conditions in the healthy carotid artery. The approach was to study (i) the accuracy for complex flow by comparing the velocity field from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation to VFI estimates obtained from the scan of an anthropomorphic flow phantom and from an in vivo scan; (ii) the accuracy for laminar unidirectional flow in vivo by comparing peak systolic velocities from VFI with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA); (iii) the precision of VFI estimation in vivo at several evaluation points in the vessels. The carotid artery at the bifurcation was scanned using both fast plane wave ultrasound and MRA in 10 healthy volunteers. The MRA geometry acquired from one of the volunteers was used to fabricate an anthropomorphic flow phantom, which was also scanned using the fast plane wave sequence. The same geometry was used in a CFD simulation to calculate the velocity field. Results indicated that similar flow patterns and vortices were estimated with CFD and VFI in the phantom for the carotid bifurcation. The root-mean-square difference between CFD and VFI was within 0.12 m/s for velocity estimates in the common carotid artery and the internal branch. The root-mean-square difference was 0.17 m/s in the external branch. For the 10 volunteers, the mean difference between VFI and MRA was -0.17 m/s for peak systolic velocities of laminar flow in vivo. The precision in vivo was calculated as the mean standard deviation (SD) of estimates aligned to the heart cycle and was highest in the center of the common carotid artery (SD = 3.6% for velocity magnitudes and 4.5° for angles) and lowest in the external branch and for vortices (SD = 10.2% for velocity magnitudes and 39° for angles). The results indicate that plane wave VFI measures flow precisely and that estimates are in good agreement with a CFD simulation and MRA.
Original languageEnglish
JournalUltrasound in Medicine and Biology
Volume44
Issue number8
Pages (from-to)1727-1741
ISSN0301-5629
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Keywords

  • Blood velocity estimation
  • Carotid artery
  • Complex flow
  • Plane wave imaging
  • Vector flow imaging

Cite this

Jensen, Jonas ; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando ; Traberg, Marie Sand ; Olesen, Jacob Bjerring ; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev ; Moshavegh, Ramin ; Holbek, Simon ; Stuart, Matthias Bo ; Ewertsen, Caroline ; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov ; Thomsen, Carsten E. ; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann ; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt. / Accuracy and Precision of a Plane Wave Vector Flow Imaging Method in the Healthy Carotid Artery. In: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. 2018 ; Vol. 44, No. 8. pp. 1727-1741.
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title = "Accuracy and Precision of a Plane Wave Vector Flow Imaging Method in the Healthy Carotid Artery",
abstract = "The objective of the study described here was to investigate the accuracy and precision of a plane wave 2-D vector flow imaging (VFI) method in laminar and complex blood flow conditions in the healthy carotid artery. The approach was to study (i) the accuracy for complex flow by comparing the velocity field from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation to VFI estimates obtained from the scan of an anthropomorphic flow phantom and from an in vivo scan; (ii) the accuracy for laminar unidirectional flow in vivo by comparing peak systolic velocities from VFI with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA); (iii) the precision of VFI estimation in vivo at several evaluation points in the vessels. The carotid artery at the bifurcation was scanned using both fast plane wave ultrasound and MRA in 10 healthy volunteers. The MRA geometry acquired from one of the volunteers was used to fabricate an anthropomorphic flow phantom, which was also scanned using the fast plane wave sequence. The same geometry was used in a CFD simulation to calculate the velocity field. Results indicated that similar flow patterns and vortices were estimated with CFD and VFI in the phantom for the carotid bifurcation. The root-mean-square difference between CFD and VFI was within 0.12 m/s for velocity estimates in the common carotid artery and the internal branch. The root-mean-square difference was 0.17 m/s in the external branch. For the 10 volunteers, the mean difference between VFI and MRA was -0.17 m/s for peak systolic velocities of laminar flow in vivo. The precision in vivo was calculated as the mean standard deviation (SD) of estimates aligned to the heart cycle and was highest in the center of the common carotid artery (SD = 3.6{\%} for velocity magnitudes and 4.5° for angles) and lowest in the external branch and for vortices (SD = 10.2{\%} for velocity magnitudes and 39° for angles). The results indicate that plane wave VFI measures flow precisely and that estimates are in good agreement with a CFD simulation and MRA.",
keywords = "Blood velocity estimation, Carotid artery, Complex flow, Plane wave imaging, Vector flow imaging",
author = "Jonas Jensen and {Villag{\'o}mez Hoyos}, {Carlos Armando} and Traberg, {Marie Sand} and Olesen, {Jacob Bjerring} and Tomov, {Borislav Gueorguiev} and Ramin Moshavegh and Simon Holbek and Stuart, {Matthias Bo} and Caroline Ewertsen and Hansen, {Kristoffer Lindskov} and Thomsen, {Carsten E.} and Nielsen, {Michael Bachmann} and Jensen, {J{\o}rgen Arendt}",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2018.03.017",
language = "English",
volume = "44",
pages = "1727--1741",
journal = "Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology",
issn = "0301-5629",
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}

Jensen, J, Villagómez Hoyos, CA, Traberg, MS, Olesen, JB, Tomov, BG, Moshavegh, R, Holbek, S, Stuart, MB, Ewertsen, C, Hansen, KL, Thomsen, CE, Nielsen, MB & Jensen, JA 2018, 'Accuracy and Precision of a Plane Wave Vector Flow Imaging Method in the Healthy Carotid Artery', Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 1727-1741. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2018.03.017

Accuracy and Precision of a Plane Wave Vector Flow Imaging Method in the Healthy Carotid Artery. / Jensen, Jonas; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Traberg, Marie Sand; Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Moshavegh, Ramin; Holbek, Simon; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Ewertsen, Caroline; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Thomsen, Carsten E.; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt.

In: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 44, No. 8, 2018, p. 1727-1741.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Accuracy and Precision of a Plane Wave Vector Flow Imaging Method in the Healthy Carotid Artery

AU - Jensen, Jonas

AU - Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando

AU - Traberg, Marie Sand

AU - Olesen, Jacob Bjerring

AU - Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev

AU - Moshavegh, Ramin

AU - Holbek, Simon

AU - Stuart, Matthias Bo

AU - Ewertsen, Caroline

AU - Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov

AU - Thomsen, Carsten E.

AU - Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

AU - Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - The objective of the study described here was to investigate the accuracy and precision of a plane wave 2-D vector flow imaging (VFI) method in laminar and complex blood flow conditions in the healthy carotid artery. The approach was to study (i) the accuracy for complex flow by comparing the velocity field from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation to VFI estimates obtained from the scan of an anthropomorphic flow phantom and from an in vivo scan; (ii) the accuracy for laminar unidirectional flow in vivo by comparing peak systolic velocities from VFI with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA); (iii) the precision of VFI estimation in vivo at several evaluation points in the vessels. The carotid artery at the bifurcation was scanned using both fast plane wave ultrasound and MRA in 10 healthy volunteers. The MRA geometry acquired from one of the volunteers was used to fabricate an anthropomorphic flow phantom, which was also scanned using the fast plane wave sequence. The same geometry was used in a CFD simulation to calculate the velocity field. Results indicated that similar flow patterns and vortices were estimated with CFD and VFI in the phantom for the carotid bifurcation. The root-mean-square difference between CFD and VFI was within 0.12 m/s for velocity estimates in the common carotid artery and the internal branch. The root-mean-square difference was 0.17 m/s in the external branch. For the 10 volunteers, the mean difference between VFI and MRA was -0.17 m/s for peak systolic velocities of laminar flow in vivo. The precision in vivo was calculated as the mean standard deviation (SD) of estimates aligned to the heart cycle and was highest in the center of the common carotid artery (SD = 3.6% for velocity magnitudes and 4.5° for angles) and lowest in the external branch and for vortices (SD = 10.2% for velocity magnitudes and 39° for angles). The results indicate that plane wave VFI measures flow precisely and that estimates are in good agreement with a CFD simulation and MRA.

AB - The objective of the study described here was to investigate the accuracy and precision of a plane wave 2-D vector flow imaging (VFI) method in laminar and complex blood flow conditions in the healthy carotid artery. The approach was to study (i) the accuracy for complex flow by comparing the velocity field from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation to VFI estimates obtained from the scan of an anthropomorphic flow phantom and from an in vivo scan; (ii) the accuracy for laminar unidirectional flow in vivo by comparing peak systolic velocities from VFI with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA); (iii) the precision of VFI estimation in vivo at several evaluation points in the vessels. The carotid artery at the bifurcation was scanned using both fast plane wave ultrasound and MRA in 10 healthy volunteers. The MRA geometry acquired from one of the volunteers was used to fabricate an anthropomorphic flow phantom, which was also scanned using the fast plane wave sequence. The same geometry was used in a CFD simulation to calculate the velocity field. Results indicated that similar flow patterns and vortices were estimated with CFD and VFI in the phantom for the carotid bifurcation. The root-mean-square difference between CFD and VFI was within 0.12 m/s for velocity estimates in the common carotid artery and the internal branch. The root-mean-square difference was 0.17 m/s in the external branch. For the 10 volunteers, the mean difference between VFI and MRA was -0.17 m/s for peak systolic velocities of laminar flow in vivo. The precision in vivo was calculated as the mean standard deviation (SD) of estimates aligned to the heart cycle and was highest in the center of the common carotid artery (SD = 3.6% for velocity magnitudes and 4.5° for angles) and lowest in the external branch and for vortices (SD = 10.2% for velocity magnitudes and 39° for angles). The results indicate that plane wave VFI measures flow precisely and that estimates are in good agreement with a CFD simulation and MRA.

KW - Blood velocity estimation

KW - Carotid artery

KW - Complex flow

KW - Plane wave imaging

KW - Vector flow imaging

U2 - 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2018.03.017

DO - 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2018.03.017

M3 - Journal article

VL - 44

SP - 1727

EP - 1741

JO - Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology

JF - Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology

SN - 0301-5629

IS - 8

ER -