Eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) plays a key role in the process of translation initiation and in its control. Here we demonstrate that highly purified mammalian eIF2 contains an additional polypeptide of apparent molecular mass of 110 kDa, This polypeptide co-purified with eIF2 through five different chromatography procedures. A cDNA clone encoding the polypeptide was isolated, and its sequence closely matched that of a protein previously termed ABC50, a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of proteins. Antibodies to ABC50 co-immunoprecipitated eIF2 and vice versa, indicating that the two proteins interact. The presence of ABC50 had no effect upon the ability of eIF2 to bind GDP but markedly enhanced the association of methionyl-tRNA with the factor. Unlike the majority of ABC proteins, which are membrane-associated transporters, ABC50 associates with the ribosome and co-sediments in sucrose gradients with the 40 and 60 S ribosomal subunits, The association of ABC50 with ribosomal subunits was increased by ATP and decreased by ADP, ABC50 is related to GCN20 and eEF3, two yeast ABC proteins that are not membrane-associated transporters and are instead implicated in mRNA translation and/or its control. Thus, these data identify ABC50 as a third ABC protein with a likely function in mRNA translation, which associates with eIF2 and with ribosomes.