A Unified Distributed Cooperative Control of DC Microgrids Using Consensus Protocol

Yu Li, Zhenbin Zhang, Tomislav Dragicevic, Jose Rodriguez

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In this work, we propose an effective and simple control approach for islanded DC microgrids that allows each distributed generator (DG) to achieve accurate voltage regulation and power-sharing. An improved dynamic consensus protocol, which is robust to measurement noise and states initialization, is employed to enable each agent to locally calculate the average bus voltage with a sparse cyber network. On this basis, we propose a cooperative controller that merges the voltage regulation and power-sharing objectives in a unified fashion. The proposed approach only uses neighbors’ voltage information to regulates the average bus voltage to its nominal value while maintaining proportional power-sharing or optimal power dispatch. This significantly simplifies its implementation and reduces the communication bandwidth requirement. A global model of the DC microgrid considering the cyber network is established in the form of a state-space-model, where the reference voltage vector corresponds to the input and the average bus voltage vector denotes the state. Then, the input-to-state stability analysis is carried out. To the end, comprehensive hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) tests are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. The proposed control strategy exhibits plug-and-play capability, and it is resilient to message update rate and communication failure.
Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Issue number99
Number of pages13
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021


  • Cooperative control
  • DC microgrids
  • Distributed control
  • Load sharing
  • Stability analysis

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