A Test of the Reproducibility of the Clustering of Cultural Variables

Agner Fog*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Cultural variables from many different cross-cultural studies can be divided into two clusters of variables that are strongly correlated within each cluster. This is reflected in two factors that are found to be reproduced by independent sets of cultural variables and also reflected in several different cross-cultural studies. The first factor, called superfactor, reflects the combined effects of development and modernization, together with social-psychological effects such as collectivism, conservatism, regality, and tightness. The second factor, called East Asian factor, combines several effects related to East Asian cultures, and possibly also differences in response style. These two factors can be found in several previously published cultural maps, but rotated differently. The common practice of factor rotation has obscured similarities between many different cross-cultural studies. Many previously published cultural factors with different names are in fact differently rotated solutions reflecting the same or closely related underlying cultural differences.
Original languageEnglish
JournalCross-Cultural Research
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)29-57
Number of pages29
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Cultural differences
  • Cultural variables
  • Social development
  • Modernization
  • Collectivism
  • Regality theory
  • Tight and loose cultures
  • Factor analysis
  • Factor rotation


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