A semi-empirical airfoil stall noise model based on surface pressure measurements

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This work is concerned with the experimental study of airfoil stall and the modelling of stall noise. Using pressure taps and high-frequency surface pressure microphones flush-mounted on airfoils measured in wind tunnels and on an operating wind turbine blade, the characteristics of stall are analyzed. This study shows that the main quantities of interest, namely convection velocity, spatial correlation and surface pressure spectra, can be scaled highlighting the universal nature of stall independently of airfoil shapes and flow conditions, although within a certain range of experimental conditions. Two main regimes for the scaling of the correlation lengths and the surface pressure spectra, depending on the Reynolds number of the flow, can be distinguished. These results are used to develop a model for the surface pressure spectra within the detached flow region valid for Reynolds numbers ranging from 1×106 to 6×106. Subsequently, this model is used to derive a model for stall noise. Modelled noise spectra are compared with experimental data measured in anechoic wind tunnels with reasonably satisfactory agreement.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Sound and Vibration
Pages (from-to)127-162
Number of pages36
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Airfoil stall
  • Aeroacoustics
  • Surface pressure
  • Noise model
  • Turbulence
  • Wind tunnel measurements
  • Wind turbine


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