Tumor-treating fields (TTFields) are a cancer treatment modality that uses alternating electric fields of intermediate frequency (∼100-500 kHz) and low intensity (1-3 V/cm) to disrupt cell division. TTFields are delivered by transducer arrays placed on the skin close to the tumor and act regionally and noninvasively to inhibit tumor growth. TTFields therapy is U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme, the most common and aggressive primary human brain cancer. Clinical trials testing the safety and efficacy of TTFields for other solid tumor types are underway. The objective of this paper is to review computational approaches used to characterize TTFields. The review covers studies of the macroscopic spatial distribution of TTFields generated in the human head, and of the microscopic field distribution in tumor cells. In addition, preclinical and clinical findings related to TTFields and principles of its operation are summarized. Particular emphasis is put on outlining the potential clinical value inferred from computational modeling.
- Cancer treatment
- Computational modeling and simulation
- Finite element models
- Tumor-treating fields (TTFields)