A Review of Top Submerged Lance (TSL) Processing—Part II: Thermodynamics, Slag Chemistry and Plant Flowsheets

Avinash Kandalam, Markus A. Reuter, Michael Stelter, Markus Reinmöller, Martin Gräbner, Andreas Richter, Alexandros Charitos*

*Corresponding author for this work

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In Part II of this series of review papers, the reaction mechanisms, thermodynamics, slag chemistry and process flowsheets are analyzed concerning cases where the TSL bath smelter has found its application. These include the primary and secondary production routes of five non-ferrous metals (tin, copper, lead, nickel, zinc), ironmaking and two waste-processing applications (spent pot lining and municipal solid waste/related ash treatment). Thereby, chemistry and processing aspects of these processes are concisely reviewed here, allowing for clear and in-depth overview of related aspects. In contrast to Part I, the focus lies on a holistic analysis of the metallurgical processes themselves, especially the particularities induced by carrying them out in a TSL reactor rather than on the respective equipment and auxiliaries. The methodology employed per metal/application is presented briefly. Firstly, the feed type and associated statistical information are introduced, along with relevant process goals, e.g., the secondary metallurgy of copper involves the recovery of platinum group metals (PGMs) from waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Subsequently, associated chemistry is discussed, including respective chemical equations, analysis of the reaction mechanisms and phase diagrams (especially of associated slag systems); these are redrawn using FactSage 8.1 (databases used: FactPS, FToxid, FTmisc, FTsalt and FTOxCN) and validated by comparing them with the literature. Then, based on the above understanding of chemistry and thermodynamics, the flowsheets of several industrial TSL plants are introduced and discussed while providing key figures associated with process conditions and input/output streams. Finally, this article culminates by providing a concise overview of the simulation and digitization efforts on TSL technology. In light of the foregoing discourse, this paper encapsulates basic principles and operational details, specifically those pertaining to TSL bath smelting operations within the non-ferrous industry, thereby offering valuable insights intended to benefit both scholarly researchers and industry professionals.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1742
Issue number10
Number of pages79
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Top submerged lance (TSL) Technology
  • Thermodynamics
  • Slag chemistry
  • Base metals
  • Plant process flowsheets
  • Minor elements
  • Extractive metallurgy
  • Pyrometallurgy


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