A Review of Top-Submerged Lance (TSL) Processing—Part I: Plant and Reactor Engineering

Avinash Kandalam, Markus A. Reuter, Michael Stelter, Markus Reinmöller, Martin Gräbner, Andreas Richter, Alexandros Charitos*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReviewpeer-review

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Part I of this series of papers focuses on plant and reactor engineering aspects of the TSL reactor technology. A general flowsheet is presented, while emphasis is given to the definition of different reactor zones in terms of fluid dynamics and occurring reactions. Then, the technical advantages of TSL processing, such as feed flexibility and high conversion rates (due to induced turbulence), low dust generation, and low fugitive emissions, are explained. In addition, the reactor is analyzed part by part, also taking into account patent literature, focusing on furnace design, settling furnaces for molten phase disengagement, feeding systems regarding input material streams such as concentrates and fuels, vessel cooling arrangements, off-gas system, and aspects associated with the refractory lining. Furthermore, specific focus is given to the centerpiece of the TSL reactor, i.e., the reactor lance. Associated developments have focused on establishing a slag coating to hinder lance wear, i.e., the development of cooling mechanisms (e.g., use of fluid-cooled lance and shroud arrangements), the increment of O2 enrichment within the incoming air stream, and influencing of fluid dynamics (e.g., O2 conversion at the lance tip, bubble formation, and bath splashing). Finally, comprehensive tables concerning process developments and commissioned TSL plants are provided thus concluding Part I of the review.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1728
Issue number10
Number of pages34
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Pyrometallurgy
  • Extractive metallurgy
  • Reactor engneering
  • TSL
  • Metallurgical lance design
  • Plant engineering
  • Base metals
  • Nonferrous


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