A Review of Methodological Approaches for the Design and Optimization of Wind Farms

José F. Herbert-Acero, Oliver Probst, Pierre-Elouan Réthoré, Gunner Chr. Larsen, Krystel K. Castillo-Villar

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This article presents a review of the state of the art of the Wind Farm Design and Optimization (WFDO) problem. The WFDO problem refers to a set of advanced planning actions needed to extremize the performance of wind farms, which may be composed of a few individual Wind Turbines (WTs) up to thousands of WTs. The WFDO problem has been investigated in different scenarios, with substantial differences in main objectives, modelling assumptions, constraints, and numerical solution methods. The aim of this paper is: (1) to present an exhaustive survey of the literature covering the full span of the subject, an analysis of the state-of-the-art models describing the performance of wind farms as well as its extensions, and the numerical approaches used to solve the problem; (2) to provide an overview of the available knowledge and recent progress in the application of such strategies to real onshore and offshore wind farms; and (3) to propose a comprehensive agenda for future research.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6930-7016
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Bibliographical note

© 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).


  • Wind farm design
  • Micro-siting
  • Wind farm layout
  • Wind farm performance modeling
  • Nonlinear optimization
  • Metaheuristic optimization


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