A prototype design model for deep low-enthalpy hydrothermal systems

Sanaz Saeid, Rafid Al-Khoury, Hamidreza M. Nick, Michael A. Hicks

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


This paper introduces a prototype design model for deep low-enthalpy hydrothermal systems. The model predicts, empirically, the lifetime of a hydrothermal system as a function of reservoir porosity discharge rate, well spacing, average initial temperature of the reservoir, and injection temperature. The finite element method is utilized for this purpose. An extensive parametric analysis on a wide range of physical parameters and operational scenarios, for a typical geometry, has been conducted to derive the model. The proposed model can provide geothermal engineers and decision makers with a preliminary conjecture about the lifetime of a deep low-enthalpy hydrothermal system. The proposed modelling technique can be utilized as a base to derive elaborate models that include more parameters and operational scenarios.
Original languageEnglish
JournalRenewable Energy
Pages (from-to)408-422
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Geothermal energy
  • Geothermal doublet design
  • Deep low enthalpy hydrothermal systems

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