A Perspective on How Fibrinaloid Microclots and Platelet Pathology May be Applied in Clinical Investigations

Etheresia Pretorius*, Douglas B. Kell

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Microscopy imaging has enabled us to establish the presence of fibrin(ogen) amyloid (fibrinaloid) microclots in a range of chronic, inflammatory diseases. Microclots may also be induced by a variety of purified substances, often at very low concentrations. These molecules include bacterial inflammagens, serum amyloid A, and the S1 spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Here, we explore which of the properties of these microclots might be used to contribute to differential clinical diagnoses and prognoses of the various diseases with which they may be associated. Such properties include distributions in their size and number before and after the addition of exogenous thrombin, their spectral properties, the diameter of the fibers of which they are made, their resistance to proteolysis by various proteases, their cross-seeding ability, and the concentration dependence of their ability to bind small molecules including fluorogenic amyloid stains. Measuring these microclot parameters, together with microscopy imaging itself, along with methodologies like proteomics and imaging flow cytometry, as well as more conventional assays such as those for cytokines, might open up the possibility of a much finer use of these microclot properties in generative methods for a future where personalized medicine will be standard procedures in all clotting pathology disease diagnoses.
Original languageEnglish
JournalSeminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Number of pages15
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2024


  • Microclots
  • Platelet hyperactivation
  • Inflammatory molecules
  • Vascular complications


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