The paper describes a new method for determining the velocity vector of a remotely sensed object using either sound or electromagnetic radiation. The movement of the object is determined from a field with spatial oscillations in both the axial direction of the transducer and in one or two directions transverse to the axial direction. By using a number of pulse emissions, the inter-pulse movement can be estimated and the velocity found from the estimated movement and the time between pulses. The method is based on the principle of using transverse spatial modulation for making the received signal influenced by transverse motion. Such a transverse modulation can be generated by using apodization on individual transducer array elements together with a special focusing scheme. A method for making such a field is presented along with a suitable two-dimensional velocity estimator. An implementation usable in medical ultrasound is described, and simulated results are presented. Simulation results for a flow of 1 m/s in a tube rotated in the image plane at specific angles (0, 15, 35, 55, 75, and 90 degrees) are made and characterized by the estimated mean value, estimated angle, and the standard deviation in the lateral and longitudinal direction. The average performance of the estimates for all angles is: mean velocity 0.99 m/s, longitudinal S.D. 0.015 m/s, and lateral S.D. 0.196 m/s. For flow parallel to the transducer the results are: mean velocity 0.95 m/s, angle 0.10, longitudinal S.D. 0.020 m/s, and lateral S.D. 0.172 m/s.
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control|
|Publication status||Published - 1998|