This paper presents a model-free insulin titration algorithm for patients with type 2 diabetes that automatically finds and maintains the optimal insulin dosage in order to maintain the blood glucose concentration at desired levels. The proposed method is based on recursive least square based extremum seeking control. Since the proposed method does not require a detailed model, it can be applied on a wide population of patients without the need to identify and adapt models to the patient data. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method using in silico simulations, which are benchmarked against two standard-of-care approaches. We also show that the proposed method can handle intra-patient metabolic variations and non-adherence to the treatment regimen. Finally, using a population of 50 virtual patients, we show that the proposed method is able to handle inter-patient variations.
- Healthcare and medical systems
- Emerging control applications
- Human-in-the-loop control