A Method for more specific Simulation of Operative Temperature in Thermal Analysis Programmes

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Simulation of energy consumption of buildings on hourly basis is closely connected to the thermal indoor climate. The operative temperature can be used as a simple measure for thermal environment. The operative temperature is a function of the air temperature, the mean radiant temperature and the relative air velocity. However, in many programs the model for calculating the mean radiant temperature has traditionally been based on the calculation of an area weighted mean value independently of the location in the room. In practice the location of the person in the room has a significant influence and inhomogeneous radiation plays an important role for the usability and functionality of the room. In order to calculate the mean radiant temperature as function of the person´s location in the room one needs to calculate the angular factor between the person and the surfaces. The angular factor between surfaces can easily be calculated; however the angular factor between a person and a surface cannot be found directly from a formula, but needs to be approximated in order to be used in computer simulations. The paper describes different kinds of validations that have been done to compare different models for calculating the angular factor and shows how a matrix solution for the angular factor can easily be implemented in programs for dynamic building thermal analysis.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationNSB2008 Nordic Symposium on Building Physics 2008 : Proceedings of the 8th Symposium on Building Physics in the Nordic Countries
Number of pages1062
Place of PublicationCopenhagen, Denmark
PublisherDanish Society of Engineers, IDA
Publication date2008
ISBN (Print)978-87-7877-265-7
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Event8th Symposium on Building Physics in Nordic Countries - Copenhagen, Denmark
Duration: 16 Jun 200818 Jun 2008
Conference number: 8


Conference8th Symposium on Building Physics in Nordic Countries
Internet address


  • Angular factor between a person and a surface, inhomogeneous radiation, mean radiant temperature, operative temperature, projected area factor, thermal building simulation


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