A Measure Based on Beamforming Power for Evaluation of Sound Field Reproduction Performance

Ji-ho Chang, Cheol-Ho Jeong

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This paper proposes a measure to evaluate sound field reproduction systems with an array of loudspeakers. The spatially-averaged squared error of the sound pressure between the desired and the reproduced field, namely the spatial error, has been widely used, which has considerable problems in two conditions. First, in non-anechoic conditions, room reflections substantially deteriorate the spatial error, although these room reflections affect human localization to a lesser degree. Second, for 2.5-dimensional reproduction of spherical waves, the spatial error increases consistently due to the difference in the amplitude decay rate, whereas the degradation of human localization performance is limited. The measure proposed in this study is based on the beamforming powers of the desired and the reproduced fields. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed measure is less sensitive to room reflections and the amplitude decay than the spatial error, which is likely to agree better with the human perception of source localization.
Original languageEnglish
Article number249
JournalApplied Sciences
Issue number3 - Special Issue 'Spatial Audio'
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Bibliographical note

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).


  • Sound field reproduction
  • Higher-order ambisonics (HOA)
  • Evaluation of reproduction performance
  • Beamforming power
  • Loudspeaker arrays


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