A low-gluten diet induces changes in the intestinal microbiome of healthy Danish adults

Lea B. S. Hansen, Henrik M. Roager, Nadja B. Søndertoft, Rikke J. Gøbel, Mette Kristensen, Mireia Vallès-Colomer, Sara Vieira-Silva, Sabine Ibrügger, Mads V. Lind, Rasmus B. Mærkedahl, Martin Iain Bahl, Mia L Madsen, Jesper Havelund, Gwen Falony, Inge Tetens, Trine Nielsen, Kristine H. Allin, Henrik L Frandsen, Bolette Hartmann, Jens Juul HolstMorten H. Sparholt, Jesper Holck, Andreas Blennow, Janne Marie Moll, Anne S. Meyer, Camilla Hoppe, Jørgen H. Poulsen, Vera Carvalho, Domenico Sagnelli, Marlene Danner Dalgaard, Anders F. Christensen, Magnus Christian Lydolph, Alastair B Ross, Silas Villas-Bôas, Susanne Brix, Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén, Karsten Buschard, Allan Linneberg, Jüri J. Rumessen, Claus T. Ekstrøm, Christian Ritz, Karsten Kristiansen, H. Bjørn Nielsen, Henrik Vestergaard, Nils J. Færgeman, Jeroen Raes, Hanne Frøkiær, Torben Hansen, Ramneek Gupta*, Tine Rask Licht, Oluf Pedersen

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Adherence to a low-gluten diet has become increasingly common in parts of the general population. However, the effects of reducing gluten-rich food items including wheat, barley and rye cereals in healthy adults are unclear. Here, we undertook a randomised, controlled, cross-over trial involving 60 middle-aged Danish adults without known disorders with two 8-week interventions comparing a low-gluten diet (2 g gluten per day) and a high-gluten diet (18 g gluten per day), separated by a washout period of at least six weeks with habitual diet (12 g gluten per day). We find that, in comparison with a high-gluten diet, a low-gluten diet induces moderate changes in the intestinal microbiome, reduces fasting and postprandial hydrogen exhalation, and leads to improvements in self-reported bloating. These observations suggest that most of the effects of a low-gluten diet in non-coeliac adults may be driven by qualitative changes in dietary fibres.
Original languageEnglish
Article number4630
JournalNature Communications
Volume9
Issue number1
Number of pages13
ISSN2041-1723
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Cite this

Hansen, L. B. S., Roager, H. M., Søndertoft, N. B., Gøbel, R. J., Kristensen, M., Vallès-Colomer, M., ... Pedersen, O. (2018). A low-gluten diet induces changes in the intestinal microbiome of healthy Danish adults. Nature Communications, 9(1), [4630]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-07019-x