Adherence to a low-gluten diet has become increasingly common in parts of the general population. However, the effects of reducing gluten-rich food items including wheat, barley and rye cereals in healthy adults are unclear. Here, we undertook a randomised, controlled, cross-over trial involving 60 middle-aged Danish adults without known disorders with two 8-week interventions comparing a low-gluten diet (2 g gluten per day) and a high-gluten diet (18 g gluten per day), separated by a washout period of at least six weeks with habitual diet (12 g gluten per day). We find that, in comparison with a high-gluten diet, a low-gluten diet induces moderate changes in the intestinal microbiome, reduces fasting and postprandial hydrogen exhalation, and leads to improvements in self-reported bloating. These observations suggest that most of the effects of a low-gluten diet in non-coeliac adults may be driven by qualitative changes in dietary fibres.
Hansen, L. B. S., Roager, H. M., Søndertoft, N. B., Gøbel, R. J., Kristensen, M., Vallès-Colomer, M., ... Pedersen, O. (2018). A low-gluten diet induces changes in the intestinal microbiome of healthy Danish adults
. Nature Communications
(1), . https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-07019-x