A hybrid solution for offshore wind resource assessment from limited onshore measurements

Basem Elshafei, Alfredo Peña, Dong Xu, Jie Ren, Jake Badger, Felipe M. Pimenta, Donald Giddings, Xuerui Mao*

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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    In wind resource assessments, which are critical to the pre-construction of wind farms, measurements by LiDARs or masts are a source of high-fidelity data, but are expensive and scarce in space and time, particularly for offshore sites. On the other hand, numerical simulations, using for example the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, generate temporally and spatially continuous data with relatively low-fidelity. A hybrid approach is proposed here to combine the merit of measurements and simulations for the assessment of offshore wind. Firstly a temporal data fusion using deep Multi Fidelity Gaussian Process Regression (MF-GPR) is performed to combine the intermittent measurement and the continuous simulation data at an onshore location. Then a spatial data fusion using a neural network with Non-linear Autoregression (NAR) and Non-linear Autoregression with external input (NARX) are conducted to project the wind from onshore to offshore. The numerical and measured wind speeds along the west coast of Denmark were used to evaluate the method. We show that the proposed data fusion technique using a gappy onshore measurement results in accurate offshore wind resource assessment within a 2% margin error.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number117245
    JournalApplied Energy
    Number of pages9
    Publication statusPublished - 2021


    • Artificial neural network
    • Gaussian process regresstion
    • Spatiotemporal data fusion
    • Wind resource assessment


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