This paper provides the experimental validation of the generalized second-order three-dimensional (3D) coupling theory outlined by Yang et al. [Z. Yang, S. Liu, X. Ji, and H.B. Bingham, 2020. A generalized second-order 3D theory for coupling multidirectional nonlinear wave propagation from a numerical model to a physical model. Part I: Derivation, implementation and model verification, submitted for publication] using multidirectional nonlinear 3D irregular waves. Based on the second-order theory for two-dimensional (2D) irregular waves described by Yang et al. (2014a), this work provides a second-order dispersive correction for the physical wavemaker signal which improves the nonlinear 3D wave information transfer between the numerical and physical models compared to the first-order method of Zhang et al. (2007). The important coupling equation and its discretization schemes were presented in detail in Part I. For further validating the performance of the second-order 3D coupling model under complex waves and bathymetry conditions, in this Part II, a careful experimental validation has been carried out by establishing a flat coupling basin and a concave-convex coupling basin. In addition, a sequence of progressively more complex numerical target waves has been used and an I-shaped segmented piston-type wavemaker system has been considered for verification of the theory. The effectiveness, adaptability, and precision of the second-order 3D coupling model have been discussed in detail. The effects of the wave parameters and its nonlinearity on the coupling simulation have also been evaluated from the discrepancy error and a wave harmonic analysis. By defining a space synchronization error, the overall error of the spatial wave field has been analyzed. Coupling simulation experiments using oblique regular and irregular waves, unidirectional irregular waves, and multidirectional irregular waves show that the traditional first-order coupling model has limitations when coupling complex waves with strong nonlinearity. When controlling the waves using the second-order 3D coupling signal, the higher harmonics underlying the numerical waves are accurately captured and transferred into the physical model, and the unwanted second-order spurious free waves are substantially reduced. Results obtained from the experimental verification described in this paper demonstrate the strengths of the second-order 3D coupling theory, which are more evident with increased wave nonlinearity.
- Experimental validation
- Multidirectional nonlinear waves
- Generalized coupling model
- Second-order 3D theory
- I-shaped segmented wavemaker