A gaze interactive assembly instruction with pupillometric recording

John Hansen*, Diako Mardanbegi, Florian Biermann, Per Bækgaard

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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This paper presents a study of a gaze interactive digital assembly instruction that provides concurrent logging of pupil data in a realistic task setting. The instruction allows hands-free gaze dwells as a substitute for finger clicks, and supports image rotation as well as image zooming by head movements. A user study in two LEGO toy stores with 72 children showed it to be immediately usable by 64 of them. Data logging of view-times and pupil dilations was possible for 59 participants. On average, the children spent half of the time attending to the instruction (S.D. 10.9%). The recorded pupil size showed a decrease throughout the building process, except when the child had to back-step: a regression was found to be followed by a pupil dilation. The main contribution of this study is to demonstrate gaze-tracking technology capable of supporting both robust interaction and concurrent, non-intrusive recording of gaze- and pupil data in-the-wild. Previous research has found pupil dilation to be associated with changes in task effort. However, other factors like fatigue, head motion, or ambient light may also have an impact. The final section summarizes our approach to this complexity of real-task pupil data collection and makes suggestions for how future applications may utilize pupil information.
Original languageEnglish
JournalBehavior Research Methods
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)1723-1733
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • Gaze interaction
  • Instructions
  • Usage log
  • Pupil dilation
  • Pupillometry
  • Effort
  • Engagement
  • Task analysis
  • User experience
  • User interfaces

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