A Field Experiment to Validate Atmospheric Dispersion and Dose Model

Sven Poul Nielsen, Sven-Erik Gryning, O. Karlberg, E. Lyck, Søren Thykier-Nielsen

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    Two tracers, sulphurhexafluoride (SF&) and radioactive noble gases, were released simultaneously from a 110-m stack and detected downwind at distances of 3-4 km. The experiments were made at the Swedish nuclear power plant Ringhals in 1981. The radioactive tracer was routine emissions from unit 1 (BWR). The one-hour measurements yielded crosswind profiles at ground level of SFg-concentrations and of gamma radiation from the plume. The measured profiles were compared to profiles calculated with computer models. The comparison showed that the models sometimes underestimate and sometimes overestimate the results, which seems to indicate that the models within their limited accuracy yield unbiased results. The ratios between measured and calculated values range from 0.2 to 3. The measurements revealed a surplus of gamma radiations from the noble gas daughters compared to those from the gases. This was interpreted as due to ground deposition and the estimated deposition velocities ranged from 2 to 10 cm/s.

    The meteorological conditions were monitored from a 100-m meteorological tower and from an 11-m mast. Measurements were made of wind speed, wind direction, and temperatures at different heights, and during each experiment a mini-radiosonde was released giving information on a possible inversion layer.

    The SF6-tracer was injected to the stack prior to the experiments. Air-samples were collected downwind in plastic bags by radio-controlled sampling units. The SFg-concentrations in the bags were determined with gas chromatography.

    Measurements of the gamma radiation from the plume were made with ionisation chambers and GM-counters - Furthermore, a few mobile gamma spectrometers were available giving information on the unscattered gamma radiation, thereby permitting identification of the radioactive isotopes. 
    The work was partly financed by the Nuclear Safety Board of the Swedish Utilities and by the Danish association of utilities in Jutland and on Funen, Elsam.
    Original languageEnglish
    Place of PublicationRoskilde
    PublisherRisø National Laboratory
    Number of pages103
    ISBN (Print)87-550-1273-6
    Publication statusPublished - 1986


    • Risø-R-495
    • Risø-R-495(EN)


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