A Delta-Sigma beamformer with integrated apodization

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This paper presents a new design of a discrete time Delta-Sigma (ΔΣ) oversampled ultrasound beamformer which integrates individual channel apodization by means of variable feedback voltage in the Delta-Sigma analog to digital (A/D) converters. The output bit-width of each oversampled A/D converter remains the same as in an unmodified one. The outputs of all receiving channels are delayed and summed, and the resulting multi-bit sample stream is filtered and decimated to become an image line. The simplicity of this beamformer allows the production of high-channel-count or very compact beamformers suitable for 2-D arrays or compact portable scanners. The new design is evaluated using measured data from the research scanner SARUS and a BK-8811 192 element linear array transducer (BK Medical, Herlev, Denmark), insonifying a water-filled wire phantom containing four wires orthogonal to the image plane. The data are acquired using 12-bit flash A/D converters at a sampling rate of 70 MHz, and are then upsampled off-line to 560 MHz for input to the simulated ΔΣ beamformer. The latter generates a B-mode image which is compared to that produced by a digital beamformer that uses 10-bit A/D converters. The performance is evaluated by comparing the width of the wire images at half amplitude and the noise level of the images. The ΔΣ beamformer resolution has been found to be identical to that of the multi-bit A/D beamforming architecture, while the noise floor is elevated by approximately 6 dB.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of SPIE : Medical Imaging 2013: Ultrasonic Imaging, Tomography, and Therapy
Number of pages7
PublisherSPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering
Publication date2013
Publication statusPublished - 2013
EventSPIE Medical Imaging 2013 - Disney's Coronado Springs Resort, Lake Buena Vista, United States
Duration: 9 Feb 201314 Feb 2013


ConferenceSPIE Medical Imaging 2013
LocationDisney's Coronado Springs Resort
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityLake Buena Vista


  • Ultrasound imaging
  • Delta Sigma converter
  • Beamforming


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