A critical review of producers of small lactone mycotoxins: patulin, penicillic acid and moniliformin

J.C. Frisvad*

*Corresponding author for this work

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A very large number of filamentous fungi has been reported to produce the small lactone mycotoxins patulin, penicillic acid and moniliformin. Among the 167 reported fungal producers of patulin, only production by 29 species could be confirmed. Patulin is produced by 3 Aspergillus species, 3 Paecilomyces species, 22 Penicillium species from 7 sections of Penicillium, and one Xylaria species. Among 101 reported producers of penicillic acid, 48 species could produce this mycotoxin. Penicillic acid is produced by 23 species in section Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati section Circumdati, by Malbranchea aurantiaca and by 24 Penicillium species from 9 sections in Penicillium and one species that does not actually belong to Penicillium (P. megasporum). Among 40 reported producers of moniliformin, five species have been regarded as doubtful producers of this mycotoxin or are now regarded as taxonomic synonyms. Moniliformin is produced by 34 Fusarium species and one Penicillium species. All the accepted producers of patulin, penicillic acid and moniliformin were revised according to the new one fungus -one name nomenclatural system, and the most recently accepted taxonomy of the species.
Original languageEnglish
JournalWorld Mycotoxin Journal
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)73-100
Publication statusPublished - 2018

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  • Patulin
  • Penicillic acid
  • Moniliformin
  • Terrestric acid
  • Penicillium
  • Aspergillus
  • Fusarium


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