### Abstract

A method to estimate the three dimensional (3D)
velocity vector is presented is this paper. 3D velocity vector techniques
are needed to measure the full velocity and characterize
the complicated flow patterns in the human body. The Transverse
Oscillation (TO) method introduces oscillations transverse to the
ultrasound beam, which enables the estimation of the transverse
velocity. To expand the method from 2D to 3D, it is proposed
to decouple the velocity estimation into separate estimates of
vx, vy, and vz in combination with a 2D phased matrix array.
Through simulations the feasibility of using the TO method for
estimation 3D velocity vectors, and the proposed decoupling is
demonstrated. A 64x64 and a 32x32 elements transducer are
emulated using Field II. Plug flow with a speed of 1 m/s in
a small region is rotated in the XY -plane. A binary flow
example with [vx,vy]=[1,0] and [0,1] m/s shows, that the velocity
estimation can be decoupled into the transverse and elevation
velocity components. This is substantiated by the results for seven
different angles, where the mean and the standard deviation of
the estimated speed are 0.970.05 m/s and of the angle bias
are -0.733.3 for the 64x64 matrix transducer. For the 32x32
transducer, the mean and standard deviation for the speed are
0.94 0.11 m/s and for the angle bias -0.487.7. The simulation
study clearly demonstrates, that the new method can be used to
estimate the 3D velocity vector using a 2D phased matrix array,
and that the velocity vector estimation can be decoupled into
separate estimates of vx, vy, and vz.

Original language | English |
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Title of host publication | Proceedings of 2011 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium |

Number of pages | 3 |

Publisher | IEEE |

Publication date | 2011 |

Pages | 430-433 |

ISBN (Print) | 978-1-4577-1251-7 |

Publication status | Published - 2011 |

Event | 2011 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium - Caribe Royale, Orlando, FL, United States Duration: 18 Oct 2011 → 21 Oct 2011 http://ewh.ieee.org/conf/ius_2011/ |

### Conference

Conference | 2011 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium |
---|---|

Location | Caribe Royale |

Country | United States |

City | Orlando, FL |

Period | 18/10/2011 → 21/10/2011 |

Internet address |

### Keywords

- Velocity vector imaging
- 3D vector flow
- Flow estimation

## Cite this

Pihl, M. J., & Jensen, J. A. (2011). 3D Vector Velocity Estimation using a 2D Phased Array. In

*Proceedings of 2011 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium*(pp. 430-433). IEEE. http://ewh.ieee.org/conf/ius_2011/index.html