3D-printed placental-derived bioinks for skin tissue regeneration with improved angiogenesis and wound healing properties

Zahra Bashiri, Motahareh Rajabi Fomeshi, Hatef Ghasemi Hamidabadi, Davod Jafari, Sanaz Alizadeh, Maryam Nazm Bojnordi, Gorka Orive, Alireza Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Maria Zahiri*, Rui L. Reis, Subhas C. Kundu, Mazaher Gholipourmalekabadi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Extracellular matrix (ECM)-based bioinks has attracted much attention in recent years for 3D printing of native-like tissue constructs. Due to organ unavailability, human placental ECM can be an alternative source for the construction of 3D print composite scaffolds for the treatment of deep wounds. In this study, we use different concentrations (1.5%, 3% and 5%w/v) of ECM derived from the placenta, sodium-alginate and gelatin to prepare a printable bioink biomimicking natural skin. The printed hydrogels' morphology, physical structure, mechanical behavior, biocompatibility, and angiogenic property are investigated. The optimized ECM (5%w/v) 3D printed scaffold is applied on full-thickness wounds created in a mouse model. Due to their unique native-like structure, the ECM-based scaffolds provide a non-cytotoxic microenvironment for cell adhesion, infiltration, angiogenesis, and proliferation. In contrast, they do not show any sign of immune response to the host. Notably, the biodegradation, swelling rate, mechanical property, cell adhesion and angiogenesis properties increase with the increase of ECM concentrations in the construct. The ECM 3D printed scaffold implanted into deep wounds increases granulation tissue formation, angiogenesis, and re-epithelialization due to the presence of ECM components in the construct, when compared with printed scaffold with no ECM and no treatment wound. Overall, our findings demonstrate that the 5% ECM 3D scaffold supports the best deep wound regeneration in vivo, produces a skin replacement with a cellular structure comparable to native skin.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100666
JournalMaterials Today Bio
Number of pages18
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • 3D printed scaffold
  • Alginate/gelatin
  • ECM bioink
  • Extracellular matrix
  • Placenta
  • Wound healing


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