The challenge of developing a three-dimensional finite element computer program for electro-thermo-mechanical industrial modeling of resistance welding is presented, and the program is applied to thesimulation of projection welding of square nuts to sheets. Results are compared with experimental obser-vations and measurements produced by the authors with the aim and objective of assessing the accuracy,reliability and validity of the theoretical and numerical developments. The numerical developmentsinclude implementation of friction between deformable objects in the finite element flow formulation inorder to model the frictional sliding between the square nut projections and the sheets during the weld-ing process. It is proved that the implementation of friction increases the accuracy of the simulations,and the dynamic influence of friction on the process is explained.© 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- Resistance projection welding
- Square nuts
- Finite element method