3D and Multimodal X-Ray Microscopy Reveals the Impact of Voids in CIGS Solar Cells

Giovanni Fevola*, Christina Ossig, Mariana Verezhak, Jan Garrevoet, Harvey L. Guthrey, Martin Seyrich, Dennis Brückner, Johannes Hagemann, Frank Seiboth, Andreas Schropp, Gerald Falkenberg, Peter S. Jørgensen, Azat Slyamov, Zoltan I. Balogh, Christian Strelow, Tobias Kipp, Alf Mews, Christian G. Schroer, Shiro Nishiwaki, Romain CarronJens W. Andreasen, Michael E. Stuckelberger*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

30 Downloads (Pure)


Small voids in the absorber layer of thin-film solar cells are generally suspected to impair photovoltaic performance. They have been studied on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 cells with conventional laboratory techniques, albeit limited to surface characterization and often affected by sample-preparation artifacts. Here, synchrotron imaging is performed on a fully operational as-deposited solar cell containing a few tens of voids. By measuring operando current and X-ray excited optical luminescence, the local electrical and optical performance in the proximity of the voids are estimated, and via ptychographic tomography, the depth in the absorber of the voids is quantified. Besides, the complex network of material-deficit structures between the absorber and the top electrode is highlighted. Despite certain local impairments, the massive presence of voids in the absorber suggests they only have a limited detrimental impact on performance.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2301873
JournalAdvanced Science
Issue number2
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • CIGS
  • Multimodal X-ray imaging
  • Nano-tomography
  • Ptychography
  • Thin film solar cells


Dive into the research topics of '3D and Multimodal X-Ray Microscopy Reveals the Impact of Voids in CIGS Solar Cells'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this