1H DNP at 1.4 T of Water Doped with a Triarylmethyl-Based Radical

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    Recently a triarylmethyl-based (TAM) radical has been developed for research in biological and other aqueous systems, and in low magnetic fields, 10 mT or less, large 1H dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhancements have been reported. In this paper the DNP properties of this radical have been investigated in a considerably larger field of 1.4 T, corresponding to proton and electron Larmor frequencies of 60 MHz and 40 GHz, respectively. To avoid excessive microwave heating of the sample, an existing DNP NMR probe was modified with a screening coil, wound around the sample capillary and with its axis perpendicular to the electric component of the microwave field. It was found that with this probe the temperature increase in the sample after 4 s of microwave irradiation with an incident power of 10 W was only 16°C. For the investigations, 10 mM of the TAM radical was dissolved in deionized, but not degassed, water and put into a 1-mm i.d. and 6-mm long capillary tube. At 26°C the following results were obtained: (I) The relaxivity of the radical is 0.07 (mMs)−1, in accordance with the value extrapolated from low-field results; (II) The leakage factor is 0.63, the saturation factor at maximum power is 0.85, and the coupling factor is −0.0187. It is shown that these results agree very well with an analysis where the electron–dipolar interactions are the dominant DNP mechanism, and where the relaxation transitions resulting from these interactions are governed by translational diffusion of the water molecules. Finally, the possibilities of combining DNP with magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) are discussed. It is shown that at 26°C the overall DNP-enhanced proton polarization should become maximal in an external field of 0.3 T and become comparable to the thermal equilibrium polarization in a field of 30 T, considerably larger than the largest high-resolution magnet available to date. It is concluded that DNP MRM in this field, which corresponds to a standard microwave frequency of 9 GHz, has the potential to significantly increase the sensitivity in NMR and MRI experiments of small aqueous samples doped with the TAM radical.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance
    Issue number2
    Pages (from-to)347-354
    Publication statusPublished - 1999


    • DNP
    • MR microscopy
    • microwave heating
    • TAM radical
    • Overhauser effect


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