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The present work is the fourth (and final) contribution to an inter-laboratory collaboration that was planned at the 3rd International Summit on Organic Photovoltaic Stability (ISOS-3). The collaboration involved six laboratories capable of producing seven distinct sets of OPV devices that were degraded under well-defined conditions in accordance with the ISOS-3 protocols. The degradation experiments lasted up to 1830 hours and involved more than 300 cells on more than 100 devices. The devices were analyzed and characterized at different points of their lifetimes by a large number of non-destructive and destructive techniques in order to identify specific degradation mechanisms responsible for the deterioration of the photovoltaic response. Work presented herein involves time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) in order to study chemical degradation in-plane as well as in-depth in the organic solar cells. Various degradation mechanisms were investigated and correlated with cell performance. For example, photo-oxidation of the active material was quantitatively studied as a function of cell performance. The large variety of cell architectures used (some with and some without encapsulation) enabled valuable comparisons and important conclusions to be drawn on degradation behaviour. This comprehensive investigation of OPV stability has significantly advanced the understanding of degradation behaviour in OPV devices, which is an important step towards large scale application of organic solar cells.
Original languageEnglish
JournalPhysical Chemistry Chemical Physics
Publication date2012
Volume14
Journal number33
Pages11780-11799
ISSN1463-9076
DOIs
StatePublished

Bibliographical note

This work has been supported by the Danish Strategic
Research Council (2104-07-0022), EUDP (j.no. 64009-0050,
64009-0051) and the Danish National Research Foundation.
Partial financial support was also received from the European
Commission as part of the Framework 7 ICT 2009 collaborative
project HIFLEX (grant no. 248678), partial financial
support from the EUIndian framework of the ‘‘Largecells’’
project that received funding from the European Commission’s
Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013. grant
no. 261936), partial financial support was also received from
the European Commission as part of the Framework 7 ICT
2009 collaborative project ROTROT (grant no. 288565) and
from PVERA-NET (project acronym POLYSTAR). are due
to CONACYT (Me´xico) for the PhD scholarship awarded to
G. T.-E; to the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation,
MICINN-FEDER project ENE2008-04373; to the Consolider
NANOSELECT project CSD2007-00041; to the Xarxa de
Refere`ncia en Materials Avanc¸ats per a l’Energia, XaRMAE
of the Catalonia Government (Spain). RR and HH are grateful
for financial support from the Thuringian Ministry of
Culture and the German Federal Ministry of Education and
Research in the frameworks of FIPV II and PPP (contract
number 13N9843), respectively. DMT acknowledges generous
support from the Inger and Jens Bruun Foundation through
The American-Scandinavian Foundation.

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