The steel–concrete interface

Publication: Research - peer-reviewJournal article – Annual report year: 2017



  • Author: Angst, Ueli M.

    ETH Zurich, Switzerland

  • Author: Geiker, Mette Rica

    Section for Building Design, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Brovej, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark

  • Author: Michel, Alexander

    Section for Structural Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Brovej, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark

  • Author: Gehlen, Christoph

    Technical University of Munich, Germany

  • Author: Wong, Hong

    Imperial College London, United Kingdom

  • Author: Isgor, O. Burkan

    Oregon State University, United States

  • Author: Elsener, Bernhard

    ETH Zurich, Switzerland

  • Author: Hansson, Carolyn M.

    University of Waterloo, Canada

  • Author: Francois, Raoul

    Universite de Toulouse, France

  • Author: Hombostel, Karla

    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway

  • Author: Polder, Rob

    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands

  • Author: Alonso, Maria Cruz

    Institute of Construction Science Eduardo Torroja, Spain

  • Author: Sanchez, Mercedes

    Institute of Construction Science Eduardo Torroja, Spain

  • Author: Correia, Maria Joao

    National Laboratory for Civil Engineering, Portugal

  • Author: Criado, Maria

    University of Sheffield, United Kingdom

  • Author: Sagüés, A.

    University of South Florida, United States

  • Author: Buenfeld, Nick

    Imperial College London, United Kingdom

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Although the steel–concrete interface (SCI) is widely recognized to influence the durability of reinforced concrete, a systematic overview and detailed documentation of the various aspects of the SCI are lacking. In this paper, we compiled a comprehensive list of possible local characteristics at the SCI and reviewed available information regarding their properties as well as their occurrence in engineering structures and in the laboratory. Given the complexity of the SCI, we suggested a systematic approach to describe it in terms of local characteristics and their physical and chemical properties. It was found that the SCI exhibits significant spatial inhomogeneity along and around as well as perpendicular to the reinforcing steel. The SCI can differ strongly between different engineering structures and also between different members within a structure; particular differences are expected between structures built before and after the 1970/1980s. A single SCI representing all on-site conditions does not exist. Additionally, SCIs in common laboratory-made specimens exhibit significant differences compared to engineering structures. Thus, results from laboratory studies and from practical experience should be applied to engineering structures with caution. Finally, recommendations for further research are made.
Original languageEnglish
JournalMaterials and Structures
Issue number143
Number of pages24
StatePublished - 2017
CitationsWeb of Science® Times Cited: 9


  • Steel–concrete interface, Interfacial transition zone, Durability, Corrosion, Inhomogeneity, Variability
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ID: 130696479