The Status of 4th Generation District Heating: Research and Results

Publication: Research - peer-reviewJournal article – Annual report year: 2018

DOI

  • Author: Lund, Henrik

    Aalborg University, Denmark

  • Author: Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    Aalborg University, Denmark

  • Author: Chang, Miguel

    Aalborg University, Denmark

  • Author: Werner, Sven

    Halmstad University, Sweden

  • Author: Svendsen, Svend

    Energy and Services, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Brovej, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark

  • Author: Sorknæs, Peter

    Aalborg University, Denmark

  • Author: Thorsen, Jan Eric

    Danfoss AS, Denmark

  • Author: Hvelplund, Frede

    Aalborg University, Denmark

  • Author: Gram Mortensen, Bent Ole

    Aalborg University, Denmark

  • Author: Mathiesen, Brian vad

    Aalborg University, Denmark

  • Author: Bojesen, Carsten

    Aalborg University, Denmark

  • Author: Duic, Neven

    University of Zagreb, Croatia

  • Author: Zhang, Xiliang

    Tsinghua University, China

  • Author: Möller, Bernd

    Aalborg University, Denmark

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This review article presents a description of contemporary developments and findings related to the different elements needed in future 4th generation district heating systems (4GDH). Unlike the first three generations of district heating, the development of 4GDH involves meeting the challenge of more energy efficient buildings as well as the integration of district heating into a future smart energy system based on renewable energy sources. Following a review of recent 4GDH research, the article quantifies the costs and benefits of 4GDH in future sustainable energy systems. Costs involve an upgrade of heating systems and of the operation of the distribution grids, while benefits are lower grid losses, a better utilization of low-temperature heat sources and improved efficiency in the production compared to previous district heating systems. It is quantified how benefits exceed costs by a safe margin with the benefits of systems integration being the most important.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEnergy
Number of pages24
ISSN0360-5442
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2018
CitationsWeb of Science® Times Cited: No match on DOI

    Keywords

  • 4th generation district heating, 4GDH, Low-temperature district heating, Smart energy systems, Smart thermal grids, Meta conclusions
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