Sustainable hydrocarbon fuels by recycling CO2 and H2O with renewable or nuclear energy

Publication: Research - peer-reviewJournal article – Annual report year: 2010

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Sustainable hydrocarbon fuels by recycling CO2 and H2O with renewable or nuclear energy. / Graves, Christopher R.; Ebbesen, Sune; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Lackner, Klaus S.

In: Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2011, p. 1-23.

Publication: Research - peer-reviewJournal article – Annual report year: 2010

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Author

Graves, Christopher R.; Ebbesen, Sune; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Lackner, Klaus S. / Sustainable hydrocarbon fuels by recycling CO2 and H2O with renewable or nuclear energy.

In: Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2011, p. 1-23.

Publication: Research - peer-reviewJournal article – Annual report year: 2010

Bibtex

@article{4cc6e93bc64e477c80b1b5a9677ffec7,
title = "Sustainable hydrocarbon fuels by recycling CO<sub>2</sub> and H<sub>2</sub>O with renewable or nuclear energy",
publisher = "Pergamon",
author = "Graves, {Christopher R.} and Sune Ebbesen and Mogensen, {Mogens Bjerg} and Lackner, {Klaus S.}",
year = "2011",
doi = "10.1016/j.rser.2010.07.014",
volume = "15",
number = "1",
pages = "1--23",
journal = "Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews",
issn = "1364-0321",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Sustainable hydrocarbon fuels by recycling CO<sub>2</sub> and H<sub>2</sub>O with renewable or nuclear energy

A1 - Graves,Christopher R.

A1 - Ebbesen,Sune

A1 - Mogensen,Mogens Bjerg

A1 - Lackner,Klaus S.

AU - Graves,Christopher R.

AU - Ebbesen,Sune

AU - Mogensen,Mogens Bjerg

AU - Lackner,Klaus S.

PB - Pergamon

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - To improve the sustainability of transportation, a major goal is the replacement of conventional petroleum-based fuels with more sustainable fuels that can be used in the existing infrastructure (fuel distribution and vehicles). While fossil-derived synthetic fuels (e.g. coal derived liquid fuels) and biofuels have received the most attention, similar hydrocarbons can be produced without using fossil fuels or biomass. Using renewable and/or nuclear energy, carbon dioxide and water can be recycled into liquid hydrocarbon fuels in non-biological processes which remove oxygen from CO2 and H2O (the reverse of fuel combustion). Capture of CO2 from the atmosphere would enable a closed-loop carbon-neutral fuel cycle. This article critically reviews the many possible technological pathways for recycling CO2 into fuels using renewable or nuclear energy, considering three stages—CO2 capture, H2O and CO2 dissociation, and fuel synthesis. Dissociation methods include thermolysis, thermochemical cycles, electrolysis, and photoelectrolysis of CO2 and/or H2O. High temperature co-electrolysis of H2O and CO2 makes very efficient use of electricity and heat (near-100% electricity-to-syngas efficiency), provides high reaction rates, and directly produces syngas (CO/H2 mixture) for use in conventional catalytic fuel synthesis reactors. Capturing CO2 from the atmosphere using a solid sorbent, electrolyzing H2O and CO2 in solid oxide electrolysis cells to yield syngas, and converting the syngas to gasoline or diesel by Fischer–Tropsch synthesis is identified as one of the most promising, feasible routes. An analysis of the energy balance and economics of this CO2 recycling process is presented. We estimate that the full system can feasibly operate at 70% electricity-to-liquid fuel efficiency (higher heating value basis) and the price of electricity needed to produce synthetic gasoline at U.S.D$ 2/gal ($ 0.53/L) is 2–3 U.S. cents/kWh. For $ 3/gal ($ 0.78/L) gasoline, electricity at 4–5 cents/kWh is needed. In some regions that have inexpensive renewable electricity, such as Iceland, fuel production may already be economical. The dominant costs of the process are the electricity cost and the capital cost of the electrolyzer, and this capital cost is significantly increased when operating intermittently (on renewable power sources such as solar and wind). The potential of this CO2 recycling process is assessed, in terms of what technological progress is needed to achieve large-scale, economically competitive production of sustainable fuels by this method.

AB - To improve the sustainability of transportation, a major goal is the replacement of conventional petroleum-based fuels with more sustainable fuels that can be used in the existing infrastructure (fuel distribution and vehicles). While fossil-derived synthetic fuels (e.g. coal derived liquid fuels) and biofuels have received the most attention, similar hydrocarbons can be produced without using fossil fuels or biomass. Using renewable and/or nuclear energy, carbon dioxide and water can be recycled into liquid hydrocarbon fuels in non-biological processes which remove oxygen from CO2 and H2O (the reverse of fuel combustion). Capture of CO2 from the atmosphere would enable a closed-loop carbon-neutral fuel cycle. This article critically reviews the many possible technological pathways for recycling CO2 into fuels using renewable or nuclear energy, considering three stages—CO2 capture, H2O and CO2 dissociation, and fuel synthesis. Dissociation methods include thermolysis, thermochemical cycles, electrolysis, and photoelectrolysis of CO2 and/or H2O. High temperature co-electrolysis of H2O and CO2 makes very efficient use of electricity and heat (near-100% electricity-to-syngas efficiency), provides high reaction rates, and directly produces syngas (CO/H2 mixture) for use in conventional catalytic fuel synthesis reactors. Capturing CO2 from the atmosphere using a solid sorbent, electrolyzing H2O and CO2 in solid oxide electrolysis cells to yield syngas, and converting the syngas to gasoline or diesel by Fischer–Tropsch synthesis is identified as one of the most promising, feasible routes. An analysis of the energy balance and economics of this CO2 recycling process is presented. We estimate that the full system can feasibly operate at 70% electricity-to-liquid fuel efficiency (higher heating value basis) and the price of electricity needed to produce synthetic gasoline at U.S.D$ 2/gal ($ 0.53/L) is 2–3 U.S. cents/kWh. For $ 3/gal ($ 0.78/L) gasoline, electricity at 4–5 cents/kWh is needed. In some regions that have inexpensive renewable electricity, such as Iceland, fuel production may already be economical. The dominant costs of the process are the electricity cost and the capital cost of the electrolyzer, and this capital cost is significantly increased when operating intermittently (on renewable power sources such as solar and wind). The potential of this CO2 recycling process is assessed, in terms of what technological progress is needed to achieve large-scale, economically competitive production of sustainable fuels by this method.

KW - Fuel Cells and Hydrogen

KW - Electrolysis

KW - Elektrolyse

KW - Brændselsceller og brint

U2 - 10.1016/j.rser.2010.07.014

DO - 10.1016/j.rser.2010.07.014

JO - Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews

JF - Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews

SN - 1364-0321

IS - 1

VL - 15

SP - 1

EP - 23

ER -